By Peter Nachtwey1

Since most of us don’t have our own heat exchanger to test on, I thought it would be good to show how one can be simulated. This would allow us to test the equations that calculate the PI tuning values over the range from a conservative to aggressive response. In addition, the sample period can be changed to see the affect that the sample period has on the response.

Building the Discrete Time Model
Learning how to model a first order plus dead time (FOPDT) system is the easiest place to start. This model simply uses the

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